Sickle cell disorders are a group of diseases which attack your red blood cells. Sickle cell is a genetic disease, which indicates it is passed on from your parents, and you are born with it; you cannot get it from another people.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most popular inherited blood disorder in the United States, affecting an approximated 90,000 to 100,000 Americans. SCD can also be very painful and is associated with several severe health difficulties.
Sickle cell disorders cause your ordinarily round and flexible blood cells to become stiff and sickle-shaped, stopping the blood cells, and the oxygen they carry, from being capable of moving freely around the body and producing pain. It can create experiences of cruel pain. These painful experiences are referred to as sickle cell crisis. They are handled with strong painkillers such as morphine to control the pain.
People with sickle cell are also at risk of difficulties stroke, severe chest syndrome, blindness, bone damage, and priapism (painful erection of the penis).
Sickle Cell Trait
Sickle cell trait is obtained when only one of your parents has passed on the sickle gene, and will never progress into sickle cell disease. You don’t have signs from sickle cell trait, so it is an excellent plan to have a blood test to detect if you have sickle cell trait. If you have the trait, the majority of red cells in the blood are normal, round shaped cells. Some sickle-shaped cells may be present under particular circumstances.
The trait is not a sickness, but if you intend to have children, then certain factors have to be considered.
What are the sickle cell anemia causes?
The reason for sickle cell disease is a defective gene, called a sickle cell gene. People with the disorder are born with two sickle cell genes, one from each parent.
If you are born with one sickle cell gene, it’s called sickle cell trait. People with sickle cell trait are generally healthy, but they can pass the faulty gene on to their kids.
What are the sickle cell symptoms?
The major features and symptoms of sickle cell anemia symptoms include:
- Fatigue and anemia
- Bacterial infections
- Sudden pooling of blood in the spleen and liver congestion
- Leg ulcers
- Eye damage
- Aseptic necrosis and bone infarcts
- Lung and heart injury
Sickle cell anemia is typically visible in the first year of life. Children and younger children can suffer from fever, abdominal pain, pneumococcal bacterial infections, painful swellings of the hands and feet.
How is sickle cell diagnosed?
Sickle cell anemia is implied when the unusual sickle-shaped cells in the blood are recognized under a microscope. Testing is typically done on a smear of blood using special low-oxygen equipment. This is indicated to as sickle prep. Other prep tests can also be used to identify the unusual hemoglobin S, including solubility tests performed on tubes of blood enzymes. The disease can be verified by explicitly quantifying the types of hemoglobin present using hemoglobin electrophoresis.
What are the treatments for sickle cell disease?
Bone marrow transplantation, also known as stem cell transplant, offers the only possible cure for sickle cell anemia. It is usually saved for people younger than age 16 because the risks rise for people older than 16. Finding a donor is complicated, and the method has serious risks associated with it, including death.
As a result, sickle cell anemia cure is usually aimed at avoiding disasters, relieving symptoms, and preventing difficulties. Babies and children age 2 and younger with sickle cell anemia should make regular visits to a doctor. Children older than 2 and adults with sickle cell anemia should attend a doctor at least once a year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Treatments might involve medicines to decrease pain and limit complications, and blood transfusions, as well as a bone marrow transplantation.
Medications for Sickle Cell treatment
Medications used to treat sickle cell anemia include:
Antibiotics: Children with sickle cell anemia may begin using the antibiotic penicillin when they’re about two months old and proceed taking it till they’re at least five years old. Doing so helps
stop infections, such as pneumonia, which can be life-threatening to a baby or child with sickle cell anemia.
Pain-relieving medication: To relieve pain during a sickle cell crisis, your doctor might prescribe pain medications.
Hydroxyurea: It is a medicine that is currently being used in adults and children with severe pain from sickle cell anemia. It is also recognized for those with repeated strokes and frequent transfusions. This medicine acts by enhancing the amount of fetal hemoglobin in the blood (this form of hemoglobin is resistant to sickling of the red blood cells). The response to hydroxyurea is variable and inconstant from patient to patient. Hydroxyurea can be suppressive to the bone marrow.