Five Stages of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

In vitro fertilisation (IVF)


In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is a widely used infertility treatment method and a well-known form of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Still, many people do not know the stages involved in the IVF procedure until they have themselves tried it.

Research reveals that one in every eight couples has difficulty conceiving. Teams are realizing their dreams of becoming parents thanks to modern fertility treatments, especially in IVF. The treatment of IVF is a fantastic technology for assisting couples in conceiving.

In vitro Fertilization (IVF) is a multi-stage technique that bypasses the normal fertilization process within a woman’s fallopian tubes. It aims to accomplish sperm and oocyte fusion outside of the body in a culture medium. It entails the following steps, each of which must be completed successfully for the couple to move on to the next.

Step: 1 Testing and Medication

The health center will take complete medical information, including genetic factors, conduct a physical examination, and obtain written consent from both spouses before starting IVF. Numerous blood tests can also be ordered to assess thyroid function, rule out or diagnose infections, especially those spread through the blood or sexually.

Ovarian stimulation medicine: An injectable drug containing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), or a mixture of the two hormones can be given to activate your ovaries which takes 8-14 days. Following this, multiple eggs are stimulated to mature at the same time by these medicines. Your doctor will formulate a strategy/protocol to help you get the most eggs possible while avoiding ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). You will be under close monitoring for the optimal results through hormone tests and vaginal ultrasounds.

Oocyte maturation medicine: You’ll get a trigger shot of HCG or another therapy after an ultrasound confirms you have a decent amount of big enough follicles and the estrogen level is at the appropriate level. It usually takes the place of a woman’s usual luteinising hormone spike, which triggers the final stage of egg maturation, allowing eggs fertilization.

Medicine for the prevention of premature ovulation: These medicines stop the uterus from releasing the growing eggs too early.

Preimplantation care medicine to prepare the uterus: Your doctor may prescribe progesterone medication on the day of egg retrieval or embryo transfer to help your uterus lining become more receptive to implantation.

Suppose your cycle is disrupted due to premature ovulation. In that case, inadequate follicles, hyperstimulation syndrome, or any other medical condition-your doctor will suggest that you change your prescription protocol or their doses to improve your chances of a successful IVF cycle in the future. It’s even possible that you’ll be told you need an egg donor.

Step: 2 Egg/ Oocyte Retrieval

Transvaginal follicular aspiration, a procedure to extract oocytes from follicles in both ovaries, is done under ultrasound direction. The treatment happens when the patient is under sedation. Mild cramping and soreness are common side effects, along with some vaginal bleeding.

Progesterone pessaries, injections, or gels are administered during oocyte extraction to ready the endometrium for implantation within five days of fertilisation. Before the oocytes are ready for insemination, they are cultured in a unique medium in an incubator.

Step 3: Fertilization

Experts test eggs after they arrive at the lab to assess their maturity and condition. Mature eggs are deposited in a particular culture, placed in an incubator, and fertilised with sperm within a few hours of egg retrieval.

Fertilization Methods:

Conventional insemination: Good sperm and mature eggs are combined and incubated overnight during traditional insemination.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) involves injecting a single healthy sperm directly into each mature egg. Where the consistency or quantity of sperm is a concern or fertilisation attempts during previous IVF cycles have failed, ICSI is often considered.

Assisted hatching is a procedure performed just before embryo culture. It is a micromanipulation process that involves making a hole in the flexible shell that protects the early embryo’s cells called zona pellucida. Assisted hatching allows embryos to hatch and implant in the uterus lining. This membrane dissolves typically on its own, as it is needed for embryo implantation.

Step 4: Embryo culture

Since normal implantation happens at the blastocyst phase, blastocyst transfer improves the probability of successful implantation (day fifth following fertilisation). The quality of the embryos is assessed in the lab using a scoring scale. The embryos have grown in size and are much more mature at this stage. They have the appearance of a ball of cells with fluid inside. At this point, one of the things we search for is how much these embryos have developed.

The higher the embryo’s quality, the more it expands. A number scale, ranging from 1 to 6, is often used to classify these embryos. Grade 6 blastocysts are of the highest standard.

Step 5: Embryo transfer

A woman’s uterus is monitored with ultrasound after an embryo transfer, and a thin catheter is an insertion done into the uterine cavity via the cervix. After that, the embryo(s) are implanted in the uterus. The woman goes to the doctor ten days later for a blood test to see whether she is pregnant.

IVF cycles take six to eight weeks to complete, depending on the couple’s availability as well as other considerations. It’s a lengthy and diligent phase. However, once the last phase is done, the normal course of the woman’s pregnancy may commence. You can also go for the best IVF Hospital in Coimbatore, considering the success in IVF treatments.

Are you looking for the Test Tube Baby Center that will tailor a treatment procedure comprehensively for you by offering a range of laboratory methods to aid patients in achieving assisted reproduction success?

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