The heart is a complex organ, both functionally and anatomically. Any alteration in the function or structure of the heart results in abnormal heart health. Statistically, cardiovascular diseases are first on the list of causes of death throughout the world. 17.9 million people died in 2019 due to cardiovascular disease. It is necessary to manage heart diseases by visiting the heart hospital.
What is Heart Disease?
Heart disease involves the conditions that affect or alter the structure and function of the heart. It is different from cardiovascular disease in that heart disease indicates diseases of the heart while cardiovascular diseases refer to the conditions related to both heart and blood vessels.
What Are the Types of Heart Disease?
There are several types of heart diseases. Some of them are:
- Coronary artery disease: Coronary artery supplies blood to the heart. Sometimes, there is an accumulation of plaque in these arteries resulting in reducing the supply of blood. It is known as coronary artery disease.
- Cardiomyopathy: It is a progressive disease of heart muscles. In this condition, the heart muscles become thick, rigid, and weak and cannot adequately pump the blood.
- Arrhythmia: It is characterized by an abnormal rhythm of the heart.
- Heart defects: There are several defects in the heart, such as patent ductus arteriosus. These defects interfere with the normal functioning of the heart or affect the overall results.
- Heart infections: People may also have heart infections. It may damage heart valves.
- Heart valve disease: Valves present in the heart regulate blood flow. Any defect in the valve results in abnormal blood flow.
What Are the Symptoms of Heart Disease?
Patients with heart disease may experience the following symptoms:
- Chest pain
- Difficulty breathing
- Stomach pain
- Dizziness and lightheadedness
- Choking sensation
- Irregular heart rate
- Ankle swelling
Go to the best chest pain doctor in Coimbatore and the best heart doctor in Coimbatore in case you experience any of the above symptoms.
What Are the Facts About Heart Disease?
Following are the recent researches associated with heart disease:
- Increased death from stroke and heart disease due to long working hours: People with long working hours are at increased risk of death due to disease and stroke. Latest estimates published in Environmental International by WHO and ILO revealed that approximately 7,45,000 people died in 2016 due to stroke and disease, an increase of 29% compared to 2000.
- There is a difference in heart disease symptoms experienced by men and women: Women may not experience chest pain in heart disease. The common symptoms that women with disease experience include back pain, stomach pain, dizziness, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Women with hysterectomies are at increased risk of developing heart disease due to weight gain and reduced estrogen synthesis.
- Maternal malnutrition causes increased cardiovascular risk in children: A study conducted by the University of Coimbra concluded that women with poor nutrition during their pregnancy have children more likely to have cardiovascular diseases in the long term. There may be a requirement for life-long monitoring and follow-up in such children.
- Cardiovascular disease poses a leading global healthcare burden: In 2019, the death of 17.9 million people was due to cardiovascular diseases. In 2019, there were 17 million premature deaths because of non-communicable diseases. Out of these, 38% were due to cardiovascular disease.
What Are the Reasons for Heart Disease?
There are several reasons for disease. Family history also plays a role in heart disease. Some of them are:
- Causes of arrhythmia: The causes of cardiac arrhythmia include smoking, hypertension, stress, excessive alcohol intake, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and drug abuse.
- Causes of coronary artery disease: Causes of coronary artery disease include lack of exercise, obesity, excessive intake of alcohol, and poor diet. These factors result in the development of atherosclerosis.
- Causes of congenital heart diseases: These conditions occur during the development of the heart in the womb. The baby is born with heart defects. It may be due to medications, genetic mutations, or underlying medical conditions.
- Causes of valve defects: The causes of valve defects include infections, connective tissue disorders, and rheumatic fever.
- Causes of cardiomyopathy: Causes of cardiomyopathy are exposure to toxins, infection, post-heart attack injury, hypertension, aging, connective tissue disorder, and medications.
How Do Doctors Diagnose Heart Disease?
There are several methods to diagnose disease. You should consult with the heart doctor in case of any symptoms. Some of them are:
- Electrocardiogram: ECG records the electrical signal of the heart. It helps in diagnosing arrhythmia.
- Echocardiogram: Through an echocardiogram, the doctors can view the detailed structure of the heart. The sound waves help in generating the images of the heart.
- Stress tests: This test helps in analyzing the response during a rapid heart rate. The doctor increases the heart rate of the patients through exercise and medicines.
- Holter monitoring: This is a portable ECG device that the patient wears for 2-3 days. The heart rhythm is under continuous monitoring through this device.
- Imaging techniques: Imaging techniques also help in diagnosing the disease. These include cardiac MRI and cardiac CT scan.
What Are the Treatment Options for Heart Disease?
Treatment options depend upon the heart and its severity. Some of the treatment options for heart disease are:
- Medications: Certain medications help in managing heart. These medications treat the conditions (such as medications for heart infection) or protect from developing heart disease (medicines to lower cholesterol).
- Surgery: When the medications do not provide optimum relief or do not reduce the risk, the doctor may advise the patients to undergo surgery. In some cases, such as congenital anatomical defects, surgery is the only option.
- Lifestyle modifications: Healthy lifestyle, such as avoiding smoking, limiting the intake of alcohol, performing routine exercise, and eating a healthy diet, helps to manage and prevent the risk of heart disease.
There are several types of heart disease. Patients with different diseases may experience varied symptoms. The doctors diagnose and treat the condition depending upon the type of heart diseases.