Diabetes-types, symptoms, causes, treatment and prevention
Diabetes is a chronic condition that actually impairs the capability of the body to process glucose in the blood which is known as the blood sugar. Glucose is produced from the food which is consumed. The hormone known as insulin which is present in the body metabolizes the glucose and converts it into energy. The underlying causes of diabetes vary according to the type. But irrespective of the type of diabetes, it results in an increase in the amount of sugar in the blood. If there is too much sugar in the blood, it leads to serious health consequences.
Types of diabetes
The most commonly known .types include:
Type 1 diabetes
When a person is suffering from type 1 diabetes, the body doesn’t make insulin. The immune system of the body attacks and also destroys out the cells in the pancreas which are responsible for the synthesis of insulin. Most commonly type 1 diabetes is diagnosed among young people and even in children but it can appear at any of the age. The people suffering from diabetes 1 are required to take insulin each and every day for survival.
Type 2 diabetes
When a person is suffering from type 2 diabetes the body neither produces nor does it make insulin. This form of diabetes can be developed among the people of any age group even during childhood. However, it is more common among middle-aged and old people. It is the most prevalent form of this chronic ailment.
This type of diabetes occurs in some of the women who are actually pregnant. In the majority of cases, it goes away when a baby is born. But if someone has gestational diabetes, then there is a much greater chance of developing into diabetes type 2 in the future.
Common symptoms of Diabetes
In both the type 1 and type 2 diabetes, there are few of the symptoms which may appear as a warning signal
Hunger and fatigue
The person might feel hungry and more tired than the usual as the body is either not making insulin or inadequate quantity of it due to which there is no production of glucose and body has no energy.
Frequent urination and thirstier
An average person urinates 4 to 7 times in 24 hours but diabetic does a lot more. The reason is that under the normal condition, the body of a person reabsorbs the glucose when it passes through the kidneys. But diabetes increases the level of blood sugar and thus kidneys are unable to bring it back all the times. This results in an increased production of urine and more consumption of fluids by the body.
Mouth drying and skin itching
Since the body will be utilizing more of the fluids for the production of urine, it gets dehydrated. Due to the availability of less moisture, there is a dryness of mouth and skin becomes scaly and itchy.
When there is an alternation in the fluid level of the body, then it also causes the swelling of the eye lenses. It results in the alteration of shape and also loses in their ability to focus.
Treatment for diabetes
The main goal of treating both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes is to control the level of blood sugar in the blood and to bring it to a normal level with the minimal of excursion to the low or high levels.
The treatment for type 1 diabetes include administering insulin, exercises and also specific diet plan for type 1 diabetes patients.
Type 2 diabetes is treated in the following ways:
- Reduction of weight through exercise
- Prescribing diabetes 2 medications –oral or injected ones
Oral antihyperglycemic drugs
The administration of oral antihyperglycaemic drugs lowers the blood sugar level adequately in all those people who are suffering from type 2 diabetes. But these drugs are not at all effective for patients who have type 1 diabetes. There are several types of oral antihyperglycemic drugs and they work in four varied ways:
Insulin secretagogues- It causes the stimulation of pancreas for the production of more insulin.
Insulin sensitizers-These doesn’t affect the production of insulin but leads to an enhancement of the response of the body towards it
Alpha-glucosidase-These oral medications delays the absorption of glucose through the intestine
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP 4) inhibitors- It carries out the stimulation of the pancreas for the production of more and more insulin and also causes the delay in the absorption of glucose through the intestine.
Insulin replacement therapy
People who have diabetes type 1 require the insulin replacement therapy and can’t survive without it. Many of the patients of diabetes type 2 also require this particular hormone. In most of the cases, it is injected underneath the skin. For some of the people even inhaled form of insulin is also available but it is not utilized quite commonly. Small syringes with a very thin needle are utilized for making the injection almost painless.
Prevention of diabetes
When it comes to diabetes, prevention is extremely important. Make prevention of this chronic ailment a priority when you are at greater risk of it like if you are overweight, you have a family history of this disorder or when you have already been diagnosed with the prediabetes. The prevention of diabetes is as basis just like being more physically active and losing weight.
Here are a few of the tips for diabetes prevention
Excessive body fat accelerates the resistance of the body to the insulin. Adopt a fitness regime which helps you to lose weight and increase the sensitivity of your body towards insulin which subsequently lowers the blood sugar level.
Eat plenty of fibre
Consume food items which are rich in fibre like fruits, vegetable beans, nuts etc. It helps in the reduction of the risk towards diabetes through the improvement of the blood sugar control. It also assists you in losing weight by keeping your stomach feel full.
Visit the doctor for regular checkups
When you grow old, it is always a good idea to visit your GP and get yourself regularly checked for the blood glucose level, blood pressure along with the cholesterol level.